|b ||p ||p|
|p ||pʰ ||p'h|
|m ||m ||m|
|f ||f ||f|
|d ||t ||t|
|t ||tʰ ||t'h|
|n ||n ||n|
|z ||ts ||ts|
|c ||tsʰ ||ts'h|
|s ||s ||s|
|l ||l ||l|
|ch ||ʈ͡ʂʰ ||ch'h|
|sh ||ʂ ||sh|
|r ||ɻ~ʐ ||r|
|j ||tɕ ||ch|
|q ||tɕʰ ||ch'h|
|x ||ɕ ||sh|
|g ||k ||k|
|k ||kʰ ||k'h|
|h ||x ||h|
y and w are used for the semivowels [j] and [w],
except in the syllables "yi" [i], "yin" [in],
"ying" [iŋ], "yu" [y], "yue" [ɥe], "yun" [yn],
and "wu" [u],
where they are a sort of null initial.
Mandarin doesn't have many phonemic vowels,
maybe as few as three (low-mid-high),
but their realization is quite varied.
The final can be split into three parts:
the optional medial, which is a possible semivowel [j], [y~ɥ] or [w];
the vowel itself;
and the optional coda, which can be the semivowels [i̯] or [u̯]
or the nasals [n] or [ŋ].
- Without a medial or final, i, e, a are [ɨ, ɤ, a].
There are no medialless and finalless o or u.
- ê (e with rising-falling tone) is [ɛ].
- ye/-ie, ya/-ia, wo/-uo, wa/-ua, ei, ai, wei, wai/-uai, ou,
you/-iou, an, wan/-uan, ang, yang/-iang, wang/-uang
are pronounced essentially like they were IPA, except with
the obvious y→[j] and ng→[ŋ].
- After an y or the initials j, q, x [tɕ, tɕʰ, ɕ],
u is actually an ü and pronounced as [y] and
the y disappears, so yu, yue, yun are
[y], [ɥe], [ɥn]; the same as -ü, -üe, -ün (there is no
-üng, or -ung for that matter).
- The final yan/-ian is unintuitively pronounced [jɛn],
and yuan/-üan is [ɥɛn].
- Before an i, y is null, so yi, yin, ying
are [i], [in], [iŋ].
- Before a codaless u, w is null.
- ü exists, but is commonly inputted
and outputted as v.
- ao, yao/-iao are [au] and [jau].
- e is an [ə] in en, wen, eng, weng.
- o is an [ʊ] in -ong, yong/-iong, but
variation between [o] and [u] is likely.
2017-12-29 | oatcookies.tx0.org